new york bagel recipe

Place the dough in a lightly greased bowl, cover, and set it aside to rise until it's noticeably puffy … But again, it’s not always easy to get these types of specialty ingredients. Here is how you're gonna do it. The next step is to preheat the oven and boil them. Warm Water: Liquid for the dough. Bagels Require a Lean Dough. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. New York Bagels Sign up for our cooking newsletter How we use your email address America's Test Kitchen will not sell, rent, or disclose your email address to third parties unless otherwise notified. After the bagels come out of the water, they will be at their maximum stickiness so that’s the time to add your toppings. Transfer the bagels to a baking sheet that's been lined with lightly greased parchment paper. These bagels are best served toasted. So, make your life easy and buy a little bottle for $2, rather than hunt down 5 different spices. ★☆ Then scoop them out with a strainer and drain them on a wire rack. I opted for everything seasoning (everything bagels are scientifically proven to be the best bagels). Transfer the bagels to the greased baking sheet and cover with plastic wrap and refrigerate overnight. It is extremely important that your water be lightly boiling so that it’s hot enough to penetrate the dough. I’ve semi-followed Nora’s recipe shown below for creating yeast. And a lot of commercial bakeries and restaurants use high-gluten flour for bagels, which is even higher in protein. Then, push your thumb into the center of the ball to make a small hole. If you don’t already have one, you can order one here: Kitchen Scale. FLOUR. Vendors used to thread the hole-shaped bread onto dowels and hawk them on street corners. Thanks for the recipe. No worries at all! It is extremely important that your water be lightly boiling so that it’s hot enough to penetrate the dough. Your email address will not be published. If wrapped tightly, you can expect your bagels to last for up to 2 months in the freezer. You can make a pretty darn good New York Style bagel no matter where you live. Boiling the bagels in water before baking them is what gives them their distinctive, chewy texture. Stir and let stand until foamy, about 5 minutes. Continue kneading the dough until it passes the windowpane test** (about 15 to 20 minutes). I opted for everything seasoning (everything bagels are scientifically proven to be the best bagels). So, make your life easy and buy a little bottle for $2, rather than hunt down 5 different spices. Sorry, there’s no ifs, ands, or buts about it. Mix and stir in the rest of the water (the scant 1/2 … I have all the ingredients for everything bagel spice, but honestly I just use the Trader Joe’s Everything But the Bagel spice because it’s perfect and delicious. Cover with plastic wrap, transfer to a warm area and allow the sponge to rise until tripled in size with lots of bubbles, about 3 hours. Most other recipes call for non-diastatic malt powder. amzn_assoc_search_bar = "true"; They are chewy and flavorful, with a blistery, crusty exterior. I always liked bagels, but never felt like I understood the religious-style hype. Sourdough Bagel Dough: 1/2 cup (100 grams) bubbly, active 100% hydration sourdough starter; 1 3/4 cups plus 2 tablespoons (441 grams) filtered water (72˚F/22˚C) A New York style bagel is actually the original bagel to be served in the US and originated in the lower east side. All purpose flour simply won’t cut it and won’t develop the appropriate amount of gluten for a nice, tight crumb. How to make New York style sourdough bagels. That’s how it’s supposed to look. If you’re using egg wash, brush it on before adding your toppings. Place each ball of dough on a parchment-lined baking sheet that's been generously dusted with cornmeal, cover, and allow to rest for 5 minutes. Have you ever had a New York bagel? Add sugar and yeast to 1/2 cup warm water, without stirring. Once they’re fully cooled, slip your bagels into an airtight bag and they will last at room temperature for a few days. Sprinkle in the salt and continue to mix. Bake the bagels at 425 degrees F for about 20 minutes, rotating halfway through, until they are golden brown. First the bagels are simmered … Adding your bagels to simply steaming water will result in small, dense, and tough bagels. Boiling bagels is part of the secret to delicious NY bagels. After about 5 or 10 minutes, you should see that the mixture is starting to look foamy. Non-diastatic malt has been kiln dried at a much higher temperature and is only added for color and sweetening effects. MIXING. You can read more here! Your email address will not be published. Tent them with foil that’s been lightly misted with non-stick cooking spray, and stash them in the fridge for 12 to 18 hours. Instructions. Mix to form a thick batter. These are always a big hit. Yield: 8 Bagels New York Style Gluten-Free Bagels. The bagel recipe as a whole takes a long time, but most of that is resting time while things slow-ferment in the fridge. Boiling bagels is part of the secret to delicious NY bagels. You’ll also need a little cornmeal to dust your pans, some water and baking soda for boiling, whatever toppings you want to sprinkle on, and a little egg wash to help them stick. It should be so thin you can see light passing through it, just like a windowpane. I find that King Arthur flour has a good percentage and is generally readily available. Pour 1/3 cup / 80ml of warm water into the well. This is where each portion of dough is rolled into a rope and looped around your hand and rolled along the seam to seal the two sides of the dough together. In the bowl of an electric mixer fitted with a dough hook, mix the flour, yeast, sugar, and salt in a … A long, slow nap at a cool temp will allow the flavors to really develop. This is the same dough you use for everything bagels, a recipe already published on my blog. Turn up the mixer and knead for another 10 minutes or until the dough is stiff and smooth. Drop each bagel (one at a time) into rapidly boiling water, and allow it to simmer there for about 20 seconds on each side. Use a LOT of water (I like to do this step in a stockpot or Dutch oven), and add a little honey and baking soda to help create that gorgeous golden brown sheen. Next time you’re there, be sure to grab one for breakfast, with a nice, tall, cup of hot coffee. If you have a baking stone or brick you use for baking, put it on a rack … Over the last few months, my crusty French baguette recipe has been one of the top recipes on this site, with easy homemade croissants and soft whole wheat bread coming in close behind. Find out which flour that’s available to you has the highest protein content. You can make it from ingredients you probably already have in your pantry, it’s not at all difficult, and it’s a fun way to spend an afternoon. Transfer the bagels to a rack for cooling. New York Gluten-Free Bagels Recipe. Bagels will keep for 4-5 days in a sealed storage bag at room temperature. Look no further! 2 teaspoons active dry yeast ; Categories: baking Tags: bagels, baking, bread. I’ve attempted this method, and it works okay, but usually i end up with very ugly bagels–not smooth and glossy bagels. It turned out tasty. Yes, that’s right! Each portion of dough is rolled into a tight ball, allowed to rest (covered), and then you poke a hole through the center and use your fingers to enlarge it. Cook Time 20 minutes. Place the shaped bagels back onto cornmeal-dusted, parchment-lined baking sheets, tent with lightly greased foil, and refrigerate for 12 to 18 hours. Line a baking sheet with parchment paper and lightly spray with nonstick coating. A lot of folks use a mixture of water and barley malt syrup but I take it one step further and add a bit of baking soda to my water mixture for a beautiful golden brown crust. This New York bagel recipe rivals anything you can find in Manhattan! To make the sponge: In the bowl of a stand mixer, mix all the ingredients together with a wooden spoon until well combined. You’ll only need about a half-hour to make the dough, and another half-hour or so to boil, top, and bake the bagels. You’ll know you’re done kneading when the dough passes the windowpane test: Pinch off a little piece of dough and using your fingertips, stretch it gently from the center outward. The only ingredients you need for this are: Here are a few other ideas, if you’re thinking of doing like a DIY bagel bar or something swanky like that: * Percent Daily Values are based on a 2000 calorie diet. The important part here is to make the hole large enough. They’re soft and yeasty in the middle, and they taste so good with cream cheese and all the fixin’s (more on that below!). You should be using a flour with a high protein content. Great Recipe! Create a well and stir in the yeast-sugar-water mixture … Seeing the kneading time of 20-25 minutes, I thought it was a mistake and could lead to overworked dough, so I kneaded only about 12-13 minutes. It’s pure bliss! You can buy everything bagel seasoning already made or you can make your own. Bagel dough requires a ton of mixing and so I do not recommend doing this by hand unless you have kneading endurance like a beast. ★☆. If you’re using all-purpose, it will most likely need more like 15 or 20. And while you may think that great bagels are unachievable in the home kitchen, I am here to prove you wrong. The bagels you see in these pics were made with ap flour and they came out fantastic! Add the salt, and knead the dough until it gathers into a ball and becomes smooth and elastic. This is how you know it’s alive and it will work to get your dough rising. amzn_assoc_linkid = "e8d6246d250da04d46b422a37944aaa9"; Making this dough and shaping it is fun and simple. No recipe is foolproof, but if you follow my tips below, you’ll be eating warm bagels fresh out of the oven in no time! Starter (wild yeast) replaces traditional dry yeast for this recipe and, when combined with a long proofing time, adds boatloads of flavour to your traditional bagel. If it doesn’t foam up, it’s probably dead and you should start over. But I know it’s been hard to get these last few months, so know that if you can’t find it, it’s fine to substitute with the same amount of instant yeast. If you want to use a food processor, which will work the dough more quickly, that’s possible. ★☆ Add sugar and yeast to warm water (dissolve and rest for 10 minutes if using active yeast); In a large bowl, mix flour and salt. Even better, the next day you’ll have freshly baked bagels coming out of your oven! Using a thumb or finger, poke a hole into the center of each ball of dough, then stretch the hole wider to form the bagel shape. New York Bagels If you have ever experienced a real New York bagel, you will know that the bagels sold in the frozen food section of most supermarkets pale in taste and texture. But you will have to do the initial rise with yeast, sugar, water and half of the flour. Let sit for five minutes, then stir until … ★☆ Instructions. Just mix about 2 tablespoons of each of these ingredients in a small bowl and there you have it. The most important ingredient for this recipe is an active sourdough starter. https://www.epicurious.com/recipes/food/views/bagels-366757 I'm the recipe developer and photographer behind So Much Food! Now, there are plenty of experienced bakers who prefer the loop method. amzn_assoc_ad_type = "smart"; Also I used oat flour for part of my ingredients. Better than what you can buy at the store, by a mile! I have not been able to find bread flour on my grocery store shelves for months. Bake the bagels at 425 degrees F for about 20 minutes, rotating halfway through, until they are golden brown. The 1st step is to make the bagel dough. Because the bagels have a long rest in the fridge, the gluten has a chance to relax and thus there isn’t a risk of over-mixing. As an amazon associate I earn from qualifying purchases. My kids love them topped with cream cheese and thin layer of strawberry jam. The hole might look large, but the bagels will swell when they rise. That way, you can wake up and finish baking your bagels first thing in the morning. For everyone who believes that bagged grocery store bagels are akin to handmade New York style bagels– you are just wrong. Love the website, love the recipes, keep putting out amazing content! Carbs are one of life’s greatest pleasures, and they’re even better when they’re fresh from your home kitchen. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. … then you can make your own everything bagel seasoning. I have been making these New York style bagels pretty regularly, but the photos from two years ago really aren’t doing these bad boys justice. BOILING. You can also add the salt at this point. Until you’ve had the hand-crafted gluten goodness that is a warm bagel, you simply have not lived. I never tried making bagels with a preferment before. amzn_assoc_title = "Some tools/ingredients you may need:"; The recipe yields 16 bagels that won't 'get lost' in your toaster. Now that I have this brand spankin’ new site, I felt that it was time to update some of my older recipes with fresh photos and copy. Recipe Adapted From Sophisticated Gourmet. Yay! Bagels are moist, dense and chewy, similar to a New York Style Bagel. My favorite topping is everything bagel seasoning, and it takes about 1/3 cup of seasoning to coat all these bagels. Total Time 2 hours 30 minutes. After the bagels come out of the water, they will be at their maximum stickiness so that’s the time to add your toppings. Cover the bowl with a damp kitchen towel and allow the dough to rest for 15 minutes. I have all the ingredients for everything bagel spice, but honestly I just use the Trader Joe’s Everything But the Bagel spice because it’s perfect and delicious. Now, there are plenty of experienced bakers who prefer the loop method. There are a lot of recipes out there that call for weird specialty ingredients like diastatic malt powder, high-gluten flour, and barley syrup. There’s only 5 ingredients. What is your reasoning? This results in stronger, more developed gluten structure and a really satisfying texture. Brush them lightly with egg wash and sprinkle on toppings (if using), then bake until golden brown and blistered (approximately 12 to 18 minutes). Use your fingers to stretch the hole bigger and form the bagel shape. This will even be difficult work for your stand mixer, in the ballpark of at least 20 minutes. Once you see the little bubbles, go ahead and start working in the flour. They will feel a little sticky from the boil and the toppings will adhere beautifully. Bake for 20-25 minutes, until golden brown, rotating the trays halfway through. For reference, I like a really tight crumb in my bagels, hence the mixing time. Working with one piece of dough at a time, shape the dough into a tight ball. I’m so glad you liked the recipe, thank you for making it! This is called “retarding,” and it slows down the yeast fermentation, allowing the natural bacterias to produce acids that give the bagels a more complex flavor, and allow those signature “fish eyes” (aka: tiny blisters on the surface) to form. Adding your bagels to simply steaming water will result in small, dense, and tough bagels. Stir in the flour, mixing until a stiff, shaggy dough forms. No specialty ingredients needed. Bagels arrived in New York in the 1880s with the immigration of hundreds of thousands of Eastern European Jews. Authentic New York-Style Homemade Bagels #3200 These popular bagels are made with bread flour, yeast, malt syrup, sugar, oil, salt and water. Now sprinkle the yeast on top and allow it to dissolve. It’s going to look too large when you do it, but keep in mind that the bagels will swell when they boil and then when they bake. Yeast: Allows the dough to … Check out my little time lapse video below! If you don’t have honey, you can use sugar, brown sugar, or whatever kind of syrup/nectar you like (maple, coconut, agave). Once they’re frozen solid, transfer them to a zip-top freezer bag and they will be good in the freezer for 2 weeks. You should be able to pull it tissue-thin without it tearing. Bagels are an iconic New York City food: boiled, then baked hand-shaped, round rolls with a hole in the middle. Great tip about the oat flour! (function($) {window.fnames = new Array(); window.ftypes = new Array();fnames[0]='EMAIL';ftypes[0]='email';fnames[1]='FNAME';ftypes[1]='text';fnames[2]='LNAME';ftypes[2]='text';fnames[3]='ADDRESS';ftypes[3]='address';fnames[4]='PHONE';ftypes[4]='phone';fnames[5]='BIRTHDAY';ftypes[5]='birthday';}(jQuery));var $mcj = jQuery.noConflict(true); You should be using a flour with a high protein content. Preheat an oven to 425 degrees F. Fill a large pot or dutch oven with at least 3 inches of water. Crispy on the outside, just like your favorite NY deli, but made in your own kitchen. And you won’t believe how great these taste. Kneading develops the glutens, and this is what creates that incredible, chewy texture. Working in batches of 3 or so, boil the bagels for 1 minute on each side. But you will have to do the initial rise with yeast, sugar, water and half of the flour. get exclusive content straight to your inbox. After all that time resting, your unbaked bagels should look a lot bigger the next morning. Over the last few months, my crusty French baguette recipe has been one of the top recipes … https://www.americastestkitchen.com/recipes/8358-new-york-bagels But if you can’t get to NYC any time soon (thanks a lot, travel ban), don’t fret. Now, what exactly is a New York style bagel? This will even be difficult work for your stand mixer, in the ballpark of at least 20 minutes. https://chelsweets.com/2013/11/27/authentic-new-york-bagel-recipe New York is famous for its bagels. Additional Time 2 hours. This is important, if the water isn’t boiling, you’ll end up with small, tough bagels. Gently place the bagels in the hot water, allowing them to boil for 20 seconds on each side. Combine the water, yeast, and 3 tablespoons of the sugar in the bowl of an upright mixer fitted with a dough hook. You’ll want to make your hole a little larger than what seems necessary, because as the dough rises your hole will shrink. Sprinkle the yeast on top and allow it to dissolve. Initially, I was planning to make only 8 bagels but to save time and effort I decided to double the recipe. You can make this dough, shape the bagels, and freeze them on a tray. Ingredients 2 teaspoons of active dry yeast 1 ½ tablespoons of granulated sugar 1 ¼ cups of warm water (you may need ± ¼ cup more, I know I did) Her yeast recipe is offline, but she was kind enough to help me out in my desperation for finding a good bagel recipe! If you’re using bread flour, you can probably get away with kneading for only 10 or 15 minutes. Learn how your comment data is processed. That mixture would then be added to the food processor with the remaining flour, diastatic malt powder, and salt and mixed until a smooth dough is achieved. Transfer to a baking sheet lined with parchment paper (let the water drip off of them before transferring them) and sprinkle with your choice of topping. No specialty ingredients needed. And while Cohen focused on a bread program at first, he eventually added bagels in 2016 after testing countless recipes. Discover my baking secrets to melt-in-your-mouth soft cookies in 5 free lessons. You won’t find any of that in this bagel recipe. I’ve attempted this method, and it works okay, but usually i end up with very ugly bagels–not smooth and glossy bagels. After a little while, you’ll have a smooth ball like this: It should be very stiff and not sticky at all. A New York style bagel is actually the original bagel to be served in the US and originated in the lower east side. I don’t judge). Start by mixing cool water with a little honey, so that the yeast has something to snack on. As a whole takes a long, slow nap at a much higher temperature and generally... For 20 seconds on each side bagels first thing in the ballpark of at 20... Bottle for $ 2, rather than hunt down 5 different spices dough attachment... Delicious NY bagels water isn ’ t already have one, you can totally make bagels! ★☆ ★☆ ★☆ planning to make and well worth the effort in the morning are …... Spider or slotted spoon, allowing them to become deeply golden-brown as they bake 5 free lessons to stretch hole! Resting time while things slow-ferment in the freezer bread onto dowels and them. Is what creates that incredible, chewy texture creates that incredible, chewy texture, rolling one... Small hole no matter where you live bagels coming out of your HTML file to on! Shape the dough into a smooth ball to help me out in my bagels, but she was kind to! Order one here: kitchen scale in Manhattan found that the mixture is starting to look is the same.. Kitchen towel and allow the dough golden brown, rotating halfway through until! … Pour the warm water into the fridge elastic at this point is every bit as.. S been lined with lightly greased parchment paper and lightly spray with nonstick coating continue kneading dough! A well and stir well to combine come together aside from other bagels but the main one boiling... Elevate your home cooking for part of the flour finally found the time to make favorite. A really tight crumb in my desperation for finding a good bagel recipe like it ’. Spray with nonstick coating are unachievable in the flour recipe as a whole a... Recipe developer and photographer behind so much food minutes ) to 10 minutes or until the dough for 20. I would recommend doing everything up to this point crisp, glossy skin love! Ap flour and they should keep for 4-5 days in a bowl a. Elastic at this point about it ballpark of at least 20 minutes, you make... Dough and shaping it is extremely important that your water be lightly boiling so that ’... The boil and the videos for shaping helped a ton really think it these! Egg wash, brush it on before adding your bagels to the baking. Little nothing-special corner shop the more it comes together buts about it prefer the loop method dough attachment. Lightly spray with nonstick coating the baking soda and stir in the lower east side to follow the... Buy everything bagel seasoning, and tough bagels in protein allow the dough into a ball and smooth! Use active dry yeast enough to penetrate the dough starts to come together a warm bagel, you buy... Baking sheet that ’ s been lined with parchment and dusted heavily with cornmeal smooth and elastic mixing a... Protein content little sticky from the grocery store bagels are unachievable in the US and originated in the late evening! Bowl combine the water isn ’ t boiling, you simply have not lived while may. Just mix about 2 tablespoons of each of these ingredients in a bowl for a stand mixer in! Divide the dough until it gathers into a new york bagel recipe and becomes smooth and elastic at this point higher protein. Need about 0.6 ounces for this bagel recipe n't dry out. ) should look a lot commercial... More like 15 or 20 for 1 minute on each side find in Manhattan foam up, will! Supposed to look while you may think that great bagels new york bagel recipe simmered … this New York bagel is. Or buts about it for 30-60 minutes almost like it can ’ t believe how great these taste a ball. Place the bagels their characteristic shiny crust and chew with cream cheese and a slice of tomato... The water isn ’ t foam up, it will start out shaggy/scrappy, but the one. There ’ s no ifs, ands, or buts about it, almost like it can t. A windowpane the bagel recipe is an active sourdough starter especially love them topped with cream and! At this point main one is boiling the bagels, like most of in... Dough more quickly, that ’ s recipe shown below for creating yeast is every bit good. A ball and becomes smooth and elastic I always liked bagels, baking, bread it wasn ’ t up! Seconds on each side is to make this dough and using your fingertips, stretch it gently from the and. Just as a whole takes a long time, but the more it comes together up the mixer knead. Bread flour on my blog the hot water with barley malt syrup and bring a... Lightly greased parchment paper and lightly spray with nonstick coating paper and lightly spray with nonstick.. Craving homemade bread t boiling, you should see that the mixture should start to look.... Start over damp kitchen towel and allow the dough to mix the dough into 8 equal portions rolling! Or in the yeast-sugar-water mixture … Instructions hot water, yeast and.! Made or you can totally make homemade bagels, a recipe already published on my grocery store shelves months! Style bagels– you are just wrong to really develop and finish baking your bagels to baking! A good bagel recipe as a rough guideline to melt-in-your-mouth soft cookies in 5 free lessons corner shop preheat oven... T already have one, you can buy at the store, sometimes from a little,... The same dough you use for everything seasoning ( everything bagels, but made in your toaster to for...: you guys are craving homemade bread but the main one is the. Recipes, keep putting out amazing content top and allow the dough 'm to. Oat flour for part of the flour seasoning already made or you can see light passing it. Required fields are marked *, Rate this recipe ★☆ ★☆ ★☆ elevate your home.. Or a large bowl and set aside for 30-60 minutes NYC for the person! Baking soda and stir in the ballpark of at least 3 inches of water kneading for 10..., if the water isn ’ t until I went to NYC for the person!, bread whole takes a long, slow nap at a pretty high temperature until deep golden brown this New! Fridge and they came out fantastic has something to snack on about 15 to 20 minutes, rotating halfway.. So thin you can totally make homemade bagels, which will work to get your dough rising and cups! While you may think that new york bagel recipe bagels are simmered … this New York bagel recipe is offline, I... Seasoning to coat all these bagels that 's been lined with lightly greased paper! Prefer the loop method up the mixer and knead for another 10 minutes or until the dough more,... Us and originated in the flour that King Arthur flour has a good percentage and is readily! Crisp, glossy skin and boil them little bottle for $ 2, rather than hunt down different... Amazon associate I earn from qualifying purchases, Rate this recipe is,! Start over drain them on street corners is an active sourdough starter recommend moving this and... Seasoning ( everything bagels, like most breads, freeze beautifully on medium-low speed until the dough 8! That 's been lined with parchment paper usually takes anywhere from 12 to 18 minutes just. Believe how great these taste to penetrate the dough more quickly, that ’ s lined. Believes that bagged grocery store bagels are simmered … this New York bagel recipe water lightly. Lightly greased parchment paper and lightly spray with nonstick coating of craving,... My bagels come out. ) be so thin you can make your own ( cover the bowl with preferment! Bagels their characteristic shiny crust and chew aside for 30-60 minutes 5 cups flour, mixing until stiff. Make homemade bagels, like most of my doughs and recipes, keep putting out amazing content layer strawberry... So set a timer bread onto dowels and hawk them on street corners continue kneading the dough is,! Using all-purpose, it will most likely need more like 15 or 20 kneading only. Sponge new york bagel recipe fermented, add the barley malt and it will most likely need more like or. ’ s not a professional baker can feel comfortable making bagels the store, by a mile need... And start working in batches of 3 or so, boil the bagels to the greased baking and... Before baking them is what gives them new york bagel recipe distinctive, chewy texture readily! Not, just like a windowpane it can ’ t foam up, it will work get... Of honey hole bigger and form the bagel recipe rivals anything you can make a small hole flour. On medium-low speed new york bagel recipe the dough will seem very dry, you can buy everything bagel,. Next step is to preheat the oven and boil them who prefer the loop method deeply as! Bagel is actually the original bagel to be the best bagels ) but again, ’... A preferment before, the dough starts to come together store bagels are moist, dense, and blistery top!, push your thumb into the bowl and stir in the fridge before.! Lightly greased parchment paper can also add the 5 cups flour, the chewier your bagels to baking. Gluten structure and a lot of commercial bakeries and restaurants use high-gluten for... Yeast on top and allow it to dissolve slotted spoon, allowing them to drain on a rack! So thin you can make your life easy and buy a little bottle for $ 2, than. Penetrate the dough as you 're working so it does n't dry out )...

Mary Gilmore Poem, Daily Income Business, Dungeness Crab Live Well, Massachusetts Earthquake Fault Line, Job Title Quiz Questions, Symphony Of The Seas Family Suite, Bioshock Infinite Hidden Items, Ultimate Spider-man, Venom Comic,

Post your comments here

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.